North Khorasan Province is a province located in northeastern Iran . Bojnord is the centre of the province . In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 .
Other counties are Shirvan , Esfarayen , Maneh and Samalqan , Jajarm , Faroj and Garmeh .
North Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004 .
Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history . Various tribes of the Arabs , Turks , Kurds , Mongols , Turkemen and Afghans brought changes to the region time and time again .
Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Iran-Shahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan . Esfarayen , among other cities of the province , was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran .
The Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years . In Parthians times , Esfarayen was one of the important villages of Nishapur .
During the Sassanid dynasty the province was governed by a Spahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgoosban" and four margraves , each commander of one of the four parts of the province .
Khorasan was divided into four parts during the Muslim conquest of Persia , each section being named after the four largest cities , Nishapur , Merv , Heart , and Balkh .
In the year 651 , the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan . The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820 , followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896 and the Samanid dynasty in 900 .
Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Khorasan in 994 and in the year 1037 Tuğrul Beg , the first of the Seljuq empire rulers conquered Nishapur .
Mahmud Qaznavi retaliated against the invaders several times , and finally the Qaznavi Turks defeated Sultan Sanjar . But there was more to come , as in 1157 Khorasan was conquered by the Khwarazmids . In 1220 was annexed by the Mongols of Chiggis Qa'an . When in 1226 the great conqueror finally died , the Khorasan was inheriter by his son Tolui and then by the son of this , who's named Hulegu , the first emperor of the mongolic Ilkhanate of Persia .
In the 14th century , a flag of independence was hoisted by the Sarbedaran movement in Sabzevar , and in 1368 , Khorasan came into the hands of Tamerlane .
In 1507 , Khorasan was occupied by Uzbek tribes . After the death of Nader Shah in 1747 , it was occupied by the Afghans .
During the Qajar period , Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company . Herat was thus separated from Persia , and Nasser-al-Din Shah was unable to defeat the British to take back Heart . Finally , the Paris Treaty was concluded in 1903 and Iran was compelled not to challenge the British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan .
Finally Khorasan was divided into two parts : the eastern part , which was the most densely populated region came under British occupation , and the other western section remained part of Iran .
Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on September 29 , 2004 . The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on May 18 , 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on May 29 , 2004) were Razavi Khorasan , North Khorasan , and South Khorasan .
North Khorasan today
Northern Khorasan province is one of the most diverse territories in Iran today , largely reflecting the ethnic makeup of Iran . Kurdish speakers make up 46.1% , forming the relative majority (plurality) of the population . The next largest group is Persian speakers which makeup 27.8% of the population , Khorasani Turks makeup 20.6% and Turkmens make up about 3.3% and other Iranians make up 2.2% of the population . There used to be a sizeable population of Lurs who used to inhabit this province , however most returned to their native area in western Iran as there are no signs of them in the province today .
Previously there used to be a sizeable community of Arabs who settled in the area during the Arab invasion of Iran , however by 1875 they had intermarried so extensively with Persians and Turks that they were undistinguishable in feature and language , having largely abandoned the Arab language and culture in favour of the local one .
This province contains many historical and natural attractions , such as mineral water springs , small lakes , recreational areas , caves and protected regions , and various hiking areas . Most of the historical relics are from the Qajar era , as earthquakes continue to ravage older relics .
The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran lists 1,179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan .
Some of the popular attractions of North Khorasan are :
· Tepe Pahlavan , near Jajarm , A prehistoric archeological site
· Jalalal-din castle , Jajarm
· Miandasht wildlife refuge , living place of Asiatic Cheetah
· petroglyphic site from Bronze Age in Jorbat (10 km north of Jajarm)
· Sari Gol protected area
· Hasanabad , Ghaisar and Solak old castles
· Noshirvan and Ebadatgah caves
· Faghatdezh castle
· Tomb of Sheikh Ali Esfarayeni
· Saloog Protected Area
· Besh Qardash (five brothers) and Baba-Aman springs
· Bidag , Konegarm , Konjekooh , Armadloo and Seyed Sadegh caves
· Mofakham mirror house (image) , built during the Qajar era
· Baba Tavakol mausoleum
· Imamzadeh Sultan Seyed Abbas
· Salook Protected Area
· Bazkhaneh valley
· Ayyub mineral water spring
· Ruwin village
Colleges and universities
· University of Bojnurd
· Islamic Azad University of Bojnurd
· Eshragh Institute of Higher Education (Bojnurd , North Khorasan)
· Islamic Azad University of Shiravan
· Hakiman Institute of Higher Education (Bojnurd , North Khorasan)